Credits for YouTube video
Host: George Howard
Narrator: Ron Way
Videographer: Jonathan Kaz, Redstar Media Group, redstarfilmsnc.com
Video editor: Allen West
Comments: thanks to all those who helped make the site better
Credits for videos, images, and sound files for this website
and for the Crowdfunding video at Generosity.com
© extezy | 123RF.com; Panorama Egypt pyramid Giza Cairo, ID # 7998734
© Sputnick | Alamy Stock Photo; Mammoth bones, ID # B9GGMH
© Sueddeutsche Zeitung Photo | Alamy Stock Photo; Tunguska trees, ID # C45M7G
© dotv2 | Bigstockphoto.com; Uncovering an ancient Indian arrowhead, ID # 74982160
© dotv2 | Bigstockphoto.com; Uncovering an ancient Indian arrowhead, ID # Stock Video ID: 74979535
© Frizi2 | Bigstockphoto.com; Etna lava flow, ID # 85450370
© Frizi2 | Bigstockphoto.com; Etna lava flow, ID # 85450373
© GaleInMotion | Bigstockphoto.com; Car explosion effect. Comes with Alpha, ID # 77984606
© JJMedia | Bigstockphoto.com; A satellite passes by. With luma matte, ID # 74442640
© Mopic2 | Bigstockphoto.com; Close Up view of rotating Earth. HD 1080p rendered clip, ID # 80360552
© Must Do New Zealand | Bigstockphoto.com; Fox Glacier, New Zealand, ID # 81439484
© OneO3 | Bigstockphoto.com; Artist rendering meteor entering earth atmosphere, ID # 81901712
© OzoneTV | Bigstockphoto.com; Burst of blue flames into red and green fireballs, ID # 82425791
© ttatty | Bigstockphoto.com; Dead dinosaur ancient skeleton bones in sand, ID # 53387971
© Vizavi | Bigstockphoto.com; Huge flames and smoke of a forest fire in the Rocky Mountains, ID # 74795833
© Vizavi | Bigstockphoto.com; Huge flames and smoke of a forest fire in the Rocky Mountains, ID # 74796451
© Wide Lens Films | Bigstockphoto.com; Ice Climbing Mountaineer, ID # 83969939
© Wide Lens Films | Bigstockphoto.com; Mountain climber uses ice pick to climb frozen mountain, ID # 83969807
© Wide Lens Films | Bigstockphoto.com; Moving or floating through the fire-ravaged forest, ID # 83964146
© Wide Lens Films | Bigstockphoto.com; Moving through a burnt forest in Canada, ID # 83961335
© 3000ad | Dreamstime.com; Asteroid hitting and burning Earth, ID # 35823487
© Alexey Komarenko | Dreamstime.com; Asteroids and sun loop, ID # 39846706
© Alexey Kuzin | Dreamstime.com; Asteroid crashes with the earth, ID # 39600531
© Andrey Pavlov | Dreamstime.com; Ant rolls heavy stone, ID # 31803597
© Bestshop | Dreamstime.com; Bone Head dinosaur, ID # 39421424
© Coplandj | Dreamstime.com; Ait Ben Haddou Kasbah, Morocco, ID # 39878990
© Evgeniy Perov | Dreamstime.com; City Skyscrapers Blackout, ID # 40578690
© Jannol | Dreamstime.com; Winter sunrise, ID # 27627180
© Kastomazer | Dreamstime.com; Meteorite Trail Short, ID # 50299688
© Ken Backer | Dreamstime.com; Ancient Clovis spear point isolated, ID # 32579116
© Lpm | Dreamstime.com; Wall of Fire, ID # 1691448
© Maciej Sznabel | Dreamstime.com; Asteroid Over Earth, ID # 41913839
© Puchan | Dreamstime.com; Asteroid impacts on Earth, ID # 55903124
© Railwayfx | Dreamstime.com; Inferno fire wall in slow motion, ID # 62432833
© Restavr | Dreamstime.com; Woolly Mammoth, ID # 47151897
© Stefanie Winkler | Dreamstime.com; Virus and Antibodys, ID # 34870711
© Trevkitt | Dreamstime.com; Overlooking houses and buildings in Agadez, ID #
© Vjanez | Dreamstime.com; Explosion, ID # 50312187
© Yakobchuk | Dreamstime.com; Electricity pylon, ID # 37799949
© Bruce Jones Design Inc. “World Mercator Projection Map with Country Outlines” Source: http://www.freeusandworldmaps.com/html/World_Projections/WorldPrint.html License: Royalty free.
© arsenyg | Pond5.com; Top view of a fiery explosion isolated on black background, footage ID # 24616880
© BestGreenScreen | Pond5.com; Smartphone crashes on the ground and breaks, footage ID # 35152350
© Calisproducties | Pond5.com; Retro TV old on and off, footage ID # 41772350
© fogostudio | Pond5.com; Wall of fire, footage ID # 587037
© ironstrike | Pond5.com; End of the dinosaurs meteor extinction, footage ID #
© kisterstudio | Pond5.com; Earth rotation + sun part 1, footage ID # 34652859
© KozziImages | Pond5.com; An aerial view of New York City’s skyline, photo ID # 58485683
© MovingImages | Pond5.com; Tunguska Event-Asteroid-Comet-Meteor Collision, footage ID # 21904109
© Pavel | Pond5.com; Dinosaur 3d animation, footage ID # 56138248
© Snaprender | Pond5.com; Thermometer on White NTSC, footage ID # 546727
© GoldenRatio | Shutterstock.com; Woman overlooks Manhattan, Clip ID 3666458
© Larisa Gukova | Shutterstock.com; Meteorite on fire. Fireball fly, Clip ID 3470429
© nmid | Shutterstock.com; Meteor Strike over Earth, Clip ID 3745511
© YAKOBCHUK VASYL | Shutterstock.com; Electricity pylon on blue sky background, Clip ID 6412865
© Boats | SoundBible.com; Fire-SoundBible.com-517801090
© CGeffex | SoundBible.com; Batman Punch, ID # 456755860
© JaBa | SoundBible.com; Fire_Burning, ID # 810606813
© keyWasFull | SoundBible.com; 747_jet_crash, ID # 1290116770
© levitb | SoundBible.com; T Rex Roar, ID # 394562851
© Mark_DiAngelo | SoundBible.com; Wind, ID # 1940285615
© Mike Koenig | SoundBible.com; Distant Thunder, ID # 632401078
© Mike_Koenig | SoundBible.com; Bunker_Buster_Missle, ID # 1405344373
© Mike_Koenig | SoundBible.com; Crisp_Ocean_Waves, ID # 1486046376
© Mike_Koenig | SoundBible.com; Dinosaur, ID # 2770858
© Mike_Koenig | SoundBible.com; Tyrannosaurus Rex Roar, ID # 807702404
© NPS | SoundBible.com; Elk, ID # 734134354
© Sound_Explorer | SoundBible.com; Atomic_Bomb, ID # 897730679
© Sound_Explorer | SoundBible.com; Bomb_Exploding, ID # 68256487
© SoundBible.com; Comet, ID # 1256431940
© Stilgar | SoundBible.com; Wind, ID # 950807958
© Discovery Access | Videoblocks.com; Two Tyrannosaurus Rexes walk together.
© WazeeDigital.com; Dinosaurs flee a forest fire, Clip ID # 808070_048
© WazeeDigital.com; Neolithic hunters with spears attack woolly mammoths, Clip ID # 80802923_t72
© WazeeDigital.com; Sun rays behind a mastodon herd, Clip ID # 8090048_086
© WazeeDigital.com; Two mastodons drink by a river, Clip ID # 8090044_058
© WazeeDigital.com; Woolly mammoths march across a field, Clip ID # 8090045_023
Leonid Kulik. “Photograph from Kulik’s 1929 expedition taken near the Hushmo river” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunguska_event#/media/File:Tunguska_event_fallen_trees.jpg License: This work is in the public domain in the United States, because it was in the public domain in its home country (Russia) on the URAA date (January 1, 1996).
© Daniel R. Strebe, 2011. “Winkel Tripel Projection SW” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Winkel_tripel_projection#/media/File:Winkel_triple_projection_SW.jpg License: e Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
© Aleksandr Ivanov. “Meteor over Chelyabinsk on February 15, 2013.” Взрыв метеорита над Челябинском 15.02.2013.avi. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iCawTYPtehk License: Standard YouTube License; Creative Commons-BY.
Amara Timberlake, PO2. Video of PCU Minnesota (SSN 783). United States Department of Defense (DOD) Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Ii2cTCRe8A. License: Creative Commons “Public Domain 1.0”
Ian M. Kummer, Staff Sgt. “40th CAB Apaches conduct interoperability training exercise” Source: https://www.dvidshub.net/video/456107/40th-cab-apaches-land-aboard-uss-ponce License: Public Domain.
Northrup Grumman. “New B-2 Stealth Bomber Air-to-Air Footage [HD]” Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P30Jf6bN2EA Standard YouTube License. License: Standard YouTube License; Public Domain.
© Pigment Ajans. Stock Footage. “Best Explosion – Green Screen HD 1080p” Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ra2N2BasBLY Licensed: Standard YouTube License; Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)
© StockGreenScreen. “Stone Debris Explosion Green Screen – 3 Camera Perspectives” Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxj5BNYl6PA License: Standard YouTube License.
Images from various sources, used under the “Fair Use” exception
© Ackley, Bruce, 2011, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org. “Reed, Phragmites sp.” Source: www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5438030. License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
© Anderson, D. G., et al. 2011. Multiple lines of evidence for possible human population decline/settlement reorganization during the early Younger Dryas. Quaternary International 242:570–583 (2011). From the Paleoindian Database of the Americas (PIDBA), 2011.
© Blakey, Ron, NAU Geology, 2016 “Map of North America” http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/rcb7/RCB.html License: for educational, non-profit use.
© Boyd, M., Running, G.L. IV, Havholm, K., 2003. Paleoecology and Geochronology of Glacial Lake Hind During the Pleistocene–Holocene Transition: A Context for Folsom Surface Finds on the Canadian Prairies. Geochron. 18, 583-607.
© CLIVAR (after W. Broecker, modified by E. Maier-Reimer), 2007. “thermohaline circulation ‘conveyor belt'” Source: http://www.clivar.org License: Fair use for educational, scientific, non-profit uses.
© Doug Hamilton, 2008. Producer, director. “Photos from Greenland expedition.”
© Ernston, Kort. 2011. “Fig. 36. Impact melt rock from the Chiemgau impact strewnfield.” Source: http://www.impact-structures.com/impact-rocks-impactites/impact-melt-page-impact-melt-rocks-impact-glasses-and-congeners/
© Hajv01 2008. “Fullerene” Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AEndohedral_fullerene.png License: Creative Commons 4.0 International, 3.0 Unported, 2.5 Generic, 2.0 Generic and 1.0 Generic license.
© Longo, G., et al., 2005. A new unified catalogue and a new map of the 1908 tree fall in the site of the Tunguska Cosmic Body explosion. In: Asteroidcomet Hazard-2005, (M. Smelror, H. Dypvik and F. Tsikalas, eds) pp. 222–225. Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg.
McColgan, John, USDA Forest Service. Deer in a fire in the Bitteroot Mountains. License: Public Domain.
© Ohio State Weed Lab, 2008, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org. “Common reed, Phragmites australis” Source: http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=1559076. License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.
© Petit J.R., et al., 1999. Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420,000 years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica, Nature, 399, pp.429-436.
© Reeh, N, 2002. Comparison between Greenland ice-margin and ice-core oxygen-18 records. Annals of Glaciology 35, International Glaciological Society.
© Tarasov, L. Peltier, W.R. 2005. Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal. Nature, Vol 435.
© Yasuda, Seiji. 2009. Theoretical Study on Compound Chondrule Formation. Thesis, Doctoral Program in Physics, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Science, University of Tsukuba.
Canadian Hydrographic Service. “Seafloor in the vicinity of Sept-Îles, Québec” Quebec Region, Institut Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont-Joli Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Pêches et Océans Canada Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
NASA/JPL-Caltech. Various space images were used.
Short, N. M., Sr, 1996. “The remote sensing tutorial” Other authors: Code 935; NASA GSFC; GST; USAF Academy NASA. Source: http://fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Sect18/Sect18_4.html#anchor5904088. License: Public Domain.
USACE.ARMY. “Explosion” Source: http://www.hnd.usace.army.mil/pao/CEAInfo/Explosion%20Photo.JPG License: Public Domain